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Verifying the result

Here is the example request from the previous page.

$ curl -d '{"num": 60000}' -v
* Trying <redacted>:80...
* Connected to (<redacted>) port 80 (#0)
> POST / HTTP/1.1
> Host:
> User-Agent: curl/7.81.0
> Accept: */*
> Content-Length: 14
> Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
* Mark bundle as not supporting multiuse
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx/1.18.0 (Ubuntu)
< Date: Mon, 25 Dec 2023 05:29:56 GMT
< Content-Type: text/plain;charset=UTF-8
< Content-Length: 19
< Connection: keep-alive
< x-oyster-signature: 37ca998deec540de877833274f46f11b4e814341edb05dd3d41e66aac806cf714fcb1558677ab9374caa45021f87189101b5cd2cc3bdb4b9f1e65f17f6880ed31b
< x-oyster-timestamp: 1703482196
* Connection #0 to host left intact

You might have noticed some interesting fields in the response - x-oyster-signature and x-oyster-timestamp. These fields help verify that the response is indeed coming from a serverless enclave.

General verification

The response is signed by the enclave key and a list of verified serverless enclave keys are maintained by the serverless contract. New keys can be added to the contract only after verifying an attestation from the enclave that it is a valid serverless enclave.

The message signed by the enclave is of the following format:


with the elements between <> replaced with the corresponding request/response parameters.

This message is hashed using keccak256 and the digest is signed using an ECDSA keypair.

To verify, simply reconstruct the message as given above and verify the signature using the contract function below.


It is possible to verify the signature off-chain without using the contract below, but you need to ensure beforehand that the key signing the message belongs to a valid serverless enclave.

On-chain verification

The signature can be verified on-chain in the same manner. To make it easier, the serverless contract provides a helper function you can use.


TLS support

Support for TLS is in the works, so the results can be used without verification in the context of a TLS connection. TLS keys will be held purely inside the enclave, just the act of being able to establish a TLS connection is enough to verify that it is a legitimate enclave. This makes off-chain verification quite trivial and is especially important for the serverless platform to work securely with browsers and existing tools which can not implement the verification steps mentioned above.